The Phillips screw and driver, originally invented by Portlander John P. Thompson, dramatically increased the speed of manufacturing and made the Phillips screwdriver a necessity in every toolbox. He later sold it to Henry F. Phillips who formed the Philips Screw Company, giving the screw drive the name it is known by to this day. These earliest screwdrivers had pear-shaped handles and were made for slotted screws (diversifi… They needed screws that could take greater torque and could provide tighter fastenings. Within the decade, almost all automakers were using Phillips screws. 3.2. His inventions built on an earlier concept credited to the inventor J. P. Thompson. Henry Frank Phillips (June 4, 1889 – April 13, 1958) was an American businessman from Portland, Oregon. The history of man has generally followed a long and illustrious timeline of discovery. A Phillips screwdriver is a screwdriver for use with Phillips screws. Henry Phillips of the Phillips Screw Company in Portland, Ore., invented a screw that would take more torque than the usual screw with its single slot, on which the screwdriver would be easily centered and would be less likely to slip. Phillips-head screws have a deeper, more positively engaging slot. While it didn’t make a lot of noise in its debut, the Phillips screwdriver is perhaps one of the most groundbreaking inventions of the 20th century. Road & Track Performance Car of the Year 2021, Porsche Has Built Almost As Many Cayennes as 911s, Maserati MC20 Spied Being Pushed to Its Limits, Train Heist Scene From Fast Five Cost $25 Million, One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, 10 Must-Have Tools From the Snap-On Catalog, Essential Garage Tools That Make Great Gifts, This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. In its modern form, the flat-head screwdriver was probably invented in about 1744 in England, where it was known as a "turn-screw"—a type of bit used as an attachment in a carpenter's brace-and-bit tool. The Phillips screw and driver, originally invented by Portlander John P. Thompson, dramatically increased the speed of manufacturing and made the Phillips screwdriver a necessity in every toolbox. [5] One of the first customers was General Motors who used the innovative design in 1936 for its Cadillac assembly-lines. The cruciform head of the screwdriver with which we are all so familiar, (Phillips), was patented by Henry F. Phillips, who was once a traveling salesman who enjoyed inventing things. But unless you’re Canadian, there’s a good chance you’ve never heard of Robertson screws. While Phillips is the most common drive type used, … After refining the design (U.S. Patent #2,046,343, U.S. The screwdriver uses applied torque to tighten down screws and bolts. Early screws used either a slotted head or some sort of square or octagonal drive. Road & Track participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. The Phillips-head ("crosshead") screw and screwdriver are named after him. Moto Mirius 7,748 views. The Phillips-head screwdriver was invented to overcome the issues with slotted screws. In 1933, Henry Phillips purchased the rights to a socket screw and redesigned the screw with a cruciform recess. Phillips’ cross-shaped design held the screw tightly while it was being turned and allowed the driver to slip out once the screw was firmly in place, thus preventing damage from too much torque. Within the decade, almost all automakers were using Phillips screws. Meanwhile, other engineers worked on their own types of screw heads. History of the Screwdriver . In the early 1930s, the Phillips head screw was invented by Oregon businessman Henry Phillips (1889–1958). After failing to interest manufacturers, Thompson sold his self-centering design to Phillips in 1935. Phillips screwdrivers can be used for Pozidriv screws, but they do exhibit some play. Ford began using it to assemble Model Ts at its Windsor, Ontario, plant, where the screw’s time-saving qualities reduced costs by a significant $2.60 per car. The “flutes” on a Phillips head screw have a very slight radius, supposedly designed to allow the Phillips head screwdriver to cam out as a sign that maximum torque had been reached. In the 1930s, the auto industry was beginning to boom, and cars were being produced on an assembly line using automated power tools. A Phillips screw offers many of the benefits of a Robertson and can be driven by a traditional slotted screwdriver in a pinch. Around then, gunsmiths developed purpose-built tournevis (French for “screwdriver”) for use in the intricate workings of early firearms. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_F._Phillips&oldid=991549653, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:19. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which is Henry Phillips invented and patented the Phillips ® design in 1936. Phillips licensed his design to the giant American Screw Company, which got General Motors to use the screw in the 1936 Cadillac. By contrast, a slotted drive would require 'six or more' sizes of screwdriver for the same size range. Robertson, a native Canadian. The history of the screw, and by inevitable implication, the screwdriver, is complicated. The History of the Phillips Screwdriver Posted on May 22, 2014 by Chris Duke. No deal was struck, and the Canadian lost an important part of his business. JIS – Japanese standard. 4. In America the first hand held screwdriver appeared on the market in the 1800's. Our product picks are editor-tested, expert-approved. Phillips is a trademark used for a screw with a head having two intersecting perpendicular slots and for a screwdriver with a tip shaped to fit into these slots. Self-Centring Design The Robertson was perfect for the burgeoning auto industry. The Phillips-head ("crosshead") screw and screwdriver are named after him. Phillips screwdriver. Robertson designed a fastener that featured a square socket tapering towards a truncated pyramidal bottom, winning a Canadian patent for his work in 1907. 5:00. WORLD'S BEST TREE FELLING TUTORIAL! Left image: Phillips screwdriver in Phillips screw The conical form leads to ejection forces Next time you strip out a Phillips, shake your fist at Henry Ford. The inventor of the Phillips screw was Henry F. Phillips, a businessman from Portland, Oregon, who obviously had a lot of time on his hands. Way more information than … Today the Phillips is the standard, except in Canada, where the Robertson remains popular, and in Japan, which has its own cruciform screw, the Japanese Industrial Standard. Henry F. Phillips (1890 – 1958) was a U.S. businessman from Portland, Oregon, and inventor of the Phillips-head screw and screwdriver. The official history from the Robertson Screw Company says that Robertson, a Canadian inventor and industrialist, cut himself when the blade slipped during a demonstration of a new spring-loaded screwdriver, forcing an epiphany that the world needed a new type of screw. From the first time a spark was created to walking on the surface of a foreign body beyond earth, the innovation of mankind has potential we have barely begun to discover. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io, The Best Wireless Car Chargers for a Full Battery, The Best Things to Keep Your Garage Organized, Stylish Watches Under $300 That Don't Look Cheap, Tactical Watches We Like at Various Price Points, Car Care Products to Keep Your Car Looking Great. However, too much torque and the screwdriver will slip. Phillips screwdrivers suck – plain and simple. The earliest documented screwdrivers were used in the late Middle Ages. Yes, the same ones used for Phillips screwdrivers! Supposedly, Phillips screwdrivers were designed that way. Its history explained in chapter 2.2. JIS Vs Phillips Screwdrivers : Mini Skills - Duration: 5:00. The Phillips® design was a great solution for the automobile production lines since it was designed to “cam-out” after a certain torque was reached to prevent over-tightening of the screw. We may earn a commission through links on our site. However, there's one bit that looks like a Phillips head that's inverted or backwards, and I can't figure out its function. A Phillips is, arguably, not a better screw than a Robertson. Henry F. Phillips, of Portland, OR, invented the X-shaped socket head screw for car makers who needed a screw that could be driven with more torque and that would hold more tightly than slotted screws. Automobile manufacturers now used car assembly lines. [4] Phillips formed the Phillips Screw Company in 1934. Where the holding power of the screwed joint is critical, torque-measuring and torque-limiting screwdrivers are used to ensure sufficient but … It was invented in the early 20th century by John P. Thompson. So old is this tool that the first historical mention dates back to the 1500s. That’s because Henry Ford wanted to use Robertsons in all of his plants, and he wanted more control over how they were made. This is helpful when you’re using a power screwdriver, which is the reason the Phillips screw was invented: it lends itself to assembly-line screwing, so to speak. A Phillips is, arguably, not a better screw than a Robertson. They were probably invented in the late 15th century, either in Germany or France. It used to be defined by the Japanese JIS B 4633, but in 2008 that standard has been declared obsolete and now it is only defined by ISO 8764-1 PH, and ISO 8764-2 PH. He died in 1958. The 1936 Phillips patent states that only two sizes of Phillips driver are required for screw sizes from number 5 to number 16. The Torx screwdriver, which first appeared in 1967, introduced a star shape that has become fairly common in certain technical uses, such as cars, bikes, and consumer electronics. The Phillips head screw was compatible with the automated screwdrivers used in assembly line. But if you’ve ever cammed (slipped) a screw-head slot, you know why it’s not the only design. As screw production increased, slotted drives became standard. The tool's original names in German and French were Schraubendreher (screwturner) and tournevis (turnscrew), respectively. The flat head or slotted screwdriver was the first known head for a screwdriver. It’s a brilliant design—Robertson screws won’t easily cam out, and the socket shape helps center the screwdriver, making one-handed operation easy. The origin of the screw and the screwdriver is lost to the pages of history, though some believe the first screw-like tool originated around the first century. Automobile manufacturers now used car assembly lines. Phillips licensed his design to the giant American Screw Company, which got General Motors to use the screw in the 1936 Cadillac. 5. I have a set of jewel screwdriver bits, for torx, Phillips, etc. The credited inventor of the Phillips screw was John P. Thompson who, in 1932, patented (#1,908,080) a recessed cruciform screw and in 1933, a screwdriver for it.[3]. Enter Peter Lymburner Robertson. However, the Phillips head screw and screwdriver combination was designed specifically to cam out, as at the time of its invention torque sensing automatic screwdrivers did not exist. A traveling salesman invented the Phillips or cruciform head screwdriver that we are so familiar with today in the early 1900's. [6] Due to failing health, Phillips retired in 1945. "Why did this guy Phillips think we needed a new type of screw? American engineer William Sellers did the same for his country in 1864. According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, toolmaker Joseph Whitworth devised Britain’s first standardized screw in 1841. These screwdrivers are made to fit into screw heads which are made in the West and do not have sharp tips like slotted screws. According to Rybczynski, the one that stuck came from inventor John P. Thompson and businessman Henry F. Phillips. The Phillips head screw was compatible with the automated screwdrivers used in an assembly line. A power tool that does the same job is a power screwdriver; power drills may also be used with screw-driving attachments. But the truth is that the screwdriver is really named after Henry F. Phillips, the owner of the company which purchased the design from its inventor John P. Thompson. The Robertson screw is better in multiple ways, but Henry Ford sealed its fate in the U.S. The screwdriver presented a solution to the frequent problem users encountered with flathead screwdrivers: the driver often slipped out of place and slowed down the process of securing the fasteners. By 1940, 85% of U.S. screw manufacturers had a license for the design. A Phillips screw offers many of the benefits of a Robertson and can be driven by a traditional slotted screwdriver in a pinch. Patents #2,046,837 to 2,046,840) for the American Screw Company of Providence, Rhode Island, Phillips succeeded in bringing the design to industrial manufacturing and promoting its rapid adoption as a machine screw standard. They Support Over a Half-Dozen Drive Types. This … What is Philips screwdriver? The Phillips screwdriver was invented in Portland, Oregon in the eary 1930's by Henry F.Phillips. Pozidriv screwdrivers, on the other hand, cannot be used for Phillips screws. Car makers also needed a screw that would center quickly and easily, and could be used efficiently on an assembly line. Henry Frank Phillips (June 4, 1889 – April 13, 1958) was an American businessman from Portland, Oregon. a type of screwdriver (= tool that turns a screw) with an end shaped like a cross. Screws with a Phillips drive can be tightened and loosened using a Phillips screwdriver. They needed screws that could take greater torque and could provide tighter fastenings. 6. The Robertson screwdriver, also known as a square screwdriver, was invented in 1908 by P.L. It is named after the American H F Phillips (1889-1958) who invented it. Phillips Screwdriver The Phillips screwdriver is also known as a crosshead, because of its cruciform head; however, superior quality drivers, the tip is somewhat rounded. It is named after the American H F Phillips (1889-1958) who invented it. Locating the screwdriver in the screw is easier, and more torque (twisting force) can be applied. Phillips Head Screw In the early 1930s, the Phillips head screw was invented by Henry Phillips. Consumer Reports once wrote that “compared with slotted and Phillips-head screwdrivers, the Robertson worked faster, with less cam-out.” However, cam-out was good for automakers increasingly relying on automation, as it meant screws wouldn’t be overtightened. Phillips drives, on the other hand, require a significantly reduced number of permutations. The bit is a female Phillips head, and the label in the kit just says "PH 2", which I imagine means Phillips head, size 2. In One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, Witold Rybczynski, professor of urbanism at the University of Pennsylvania, traces the metal fasteners to the 15th century, though it wasn’t until the early 18th century that the screw became common. It’s a common misconception that the Phillips screwdriver was named after its inventor. Robertson, by most accounts a stubborn man, wouldn’t agree. A century later, when screws could be mass-produced, factories cranked out accompanying screwdrivers. There really is a Phillips! John P. Thompson invented a crosshead screw design in 1932. The first documentation of the tool is in the medieval Housebook of Wolfegg Castle, a manuscript written sometime between 1475 and 1490. 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