Change ). As mentioned earlier, blast and poison fishing are both illegal. It is not the older generations of fishermen, however, who practice destructive techniques. The following model was designed based on the aforementioned value notation taking into account the damage being done by destructive fishing practices. The widespread use began after WWII because Japan and the Allied Nations left behind thousands of shells littering the waters of the area (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Reefbase. Definition of Destructive Fishing: A practice that uses fishing gear and technique, such as bottom-trawling, cyanide fishing, and fish bombing, that destroy fisheries habitat and inflict damage to marine environment. These productive and diverse ecosystems constitute 77 percent of the 800 reef-building coral species and in total, 34 percent of all corals. The process of cyanide fishing itself indisputably wreaks havoc on coral reefs. After the Vietnam War, however, sodium cyanide and similar bleaches, deadly broad-spectrum poisons, became the popularly used in cyanide or poison fishing (McManus). If traces of sodium cyanide are detected they can refuse to buy fish, or even turn in the merchants. Similarly, restaurateurs can make regulations by checking for traces of poison when buying shipments of reef fish in order to prevent poison fishing. Conservation of reefs can be done through restoration, rehabilitation and even creation. : World Resources Institute, 2002. Bycatch, overfishing, destruction of the habitat are a few examples of the effects of modern fishery politics. Destructive fishing practices should be obsolete in 2012, but the layers upon layers of problems in foreign nations makes combating them near impossible. “Blasting Away: The Economics of Blast Fishing on Indonesian Coral Reefs.” Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. These factors put stress on the coastal coral reef fisheries to increase production in order to supply the needs of the fast growing economy. In the case of poison fishing, approximately US $0.4 million is made per boat (Cesar). Repeated exposure almost certainly causes death, and most village divers return to the same spots to fish guaranteeing destruction of the reef. Creative solutions that appeal the government must be used to combat threats, for example, financially sustainable and ecologically beneficial marine parks or generate jobs and alternate livelihoods for people involved in reef destruction. These days, dynamite, grenades and even empty beer and soda bottles filled with potassium nitrate and artificial fertilizer, topped with pebbles and a fuse are used as bombs. albatrosses and petrels in long-line fisheries in the North Pacific and in the Southern Ocean. Additionally, the bombs are often constructed by women and children in the villages and stored underneath the houses that constitute unrealized hazards (McManus). 8 May 2012. . Although there is a correlation between coral reef destruction and population growth, it is not necessarily linear (6). The quasi-option value is similar to the option value since it shows that avoiding irreversible destruction of an ecosystem that may have a profitable and useful value in the future gives it value today. Regularly bombed reefs exhibit a 50-80 percent mortality rate (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Ghost fishing is not exactly fishing but it is abandoning fishing gears into the ocean which causes the fishes to get caught in the nets. AU - Saila, S. B. This highly efficient process allows corals to grow in low-nutrient oligotrophic waters (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Corals are then glued, nailed, wired or simply left to attach naturally. There are perceivable solutions to these heinous practices. (Burke, Selig, Spalding). With the introduction of rockhopper trawls, most of the ocean floor can be trawled to the depth of 2000m. - Land of Size. Bequest value comes down to preserving the natural heritage for future generations and knowing that reefs exist today and can possibly be of use to mankind in the coming decades. Coral reefs have unprecedented value to the human population and the data and information has only recently begun to make its way into the academic world. Thirty-one of the reefs that exhibited traces of cyanide fishing also indicated blast fishing, revealing that the two activities may be symptoms of a common problem (Pet-Soede, Cesar, Pet). Types of destructive fishing: Trawling: It consists of throwing big nets into the seabed, which are ballasted and then pulled for their collection, so they capture everything in their path. Enter your email address to follow PROSPECT and receive notifications of new posts by email. It is the newer, poorer, expunged city dwellers trying to make a living that are destroying coral reefs. Know More About : Catching Dangerous Fish- The Challenges. Unfortunately, as the aforementioned anthropogenic threats make coral reef communities barren wastelands, fishers have to resort to traveling further out to isolated reefs and using the illegal and inexpensive destructive fishing techniques. Simultaneously, the population continues to grow, and the majority of this growth is centered in cities. Both fisheries and pharmaceuticals require extraction of goods from the ecosystem. The shells were repacked with explosives to make bombs for fishing. Print. Thinking Of Fishing? ecosystem effects of destructive fishing, and that elimination of dynamite fishing may be easier for the government due to the high profitability of the live fish trade connected with cyanide fishing. Restoration implies bringing the reef back to its original condition in terms of biodiversity, structure, functions and aesthetic quality (Barber and Pratt). All three of these conservation techniques are being used and experimented with to make up for the threats posed to coral reef ecosystems. AU - Kocic, V. L. AU - McManus, J. W. PY - 1993/1/1. The effects are much more devastating to corals and the future economy, and thus outweigh the profits. Usually big ships and trawlers are employed to catch tonnes of fish. This toxic cycle has resulted in the continued destruction of coral reef ecosystems — and in order to try and reverse the damage done the government — policy makers, private sector and coastal communities must work together to manage resources, enforce laws, monitor and educate youth and conduct research to attempt to repopulate coral reefs in Southeast Asia. Destructive fishing is a secondary consequence of overfishing and it involves methods such as cyanide poisoning and dynamite fishing that directly aims to harvest seafood but indirectly destroys coral reefs in the process. Barber, Charles Victor and Vaughan R. Pratt. They are among the most diverse of communities in our oceans and one of the oldest, having evolved over 200 million years ago. Bottom trawl fishing uses weighted nets that are dragged on the bottom of the seafloor and can destroy whole habitats. Upon closer investigation of the ownership and trickle-down nature of the live reef fish trade, it is evident that most poison fishing practices are conducted under a larger umbrella company or organization. Bombs only cost villagers $1-2 to make and most earn about $15-40. Biogeochemical services such as nitrogen fixation, as well as information services like providing a climate record can be attributed to corals. The resulting destruction of reefs have long lasting effects on corals, as well as the fish and fisheries that have a direct correlation to Southeast Asian economies. Kalmar, Sweden: CORDIO, Department for Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar University, 2000. This destructive fishing technique can harm many living things in its path, including fish, sea stars, urchins, clams, coastal seagrass beds, and coral reefs. Some nations like Cambodia have unstable governments and are working to simply establish a working economy with peace and justice, while others like Indonesia are trying to move out from under the developing nation label by investing a majority of their nations capital in improving industry. These factors are only one piece of a multi-faceted puzzle. Governments in Southeast Asia have their development goals affixed on issues other than marine conservation, and understandably so. GDP growth and investment in technology and business are top priorities in these countries. Some corals are single polyps, but the majority form large, dense colonies. As populations of many fish species dwindle due to intensive commercial fishing effort, bottom trawling outfits are searching for new fishing grounds … Mous, Peter J., et al. Corals are often mistaken for plants or rocks, but these simple animals are made up of polyps with tube-like bodies and mouths surrounded by rings of tentacles. Most coastal populations are unaware of the goods and services coral reef ecosystems provide (Cesar). Many organisms are caught by accident and then thrown back into the ocean, but often these organisms are injured or already dead by that point. Web. Reefs are cover for marine species to thrive and live. Most officials and small business owners understand the language of cost and benefit, therefore publishing summaries with numbers and predictions is an important step. A value can be assigned using fundamental principles of economics, determining the goods and services provided by corals. Recovery, if possible, may take decades. Corals are obviously also deeply affected through total or slight bleaching. Dynamite fishing involves the use of explosives like dynamite to kill the fishes and bring them to the surface. For example every nations believes that clean drinking water is a necessity, which it is, therefore funds will be allocated for this cause. The bombs kill most of the fish by bursting their swim bladders that are filled with gas. Simple education on the linkages of the natural world and the danger that loss of the ecosystem would bring may alter the mindsets of many fishermen. What is Destructive Fishing? The repercussions are not evident yet. Industrial trawlers were never used in rocky regions and coral reefs as the nets would get caught and tear. Corals are the victims of six different anthropogenic threats: overfishing and overexploitation, marine pollution, coastal development, rising sea surface temperatures due to global warming, sedimentation and destructive fishing practices (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Several anthropogenic threats are directly linked to the countries’ economic stability. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. They cover less than 1 percent of the Earth, and yet support millions of marine plants and animals. Kalmar, Sweden: CORDIO, Department for Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar University, 2000. Reefbase. This method of bottom trawling has caused depletion of coral reefs and aquatic vegetation which are the major breeding grounds of fishes. Knowing the societal costs and benefits of a particular threat from a mere management perspective will not prevent any kind of destructive fishing practice. The sodium cyanide, sold in village markets is crushed and put in plastic squirt bottles by divers (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Rehabilitation is seen when scientists carefully dig out corals and move them to safer areas less affected by development and destructive fishing practices (Barber and Pratt). It is a reliable source of income for the poor, and to this demographic the health or any of the values that corals provide are irrelevant and useless. Commercial poison use didn’t flourish until the 1960’s, before natural poisons such as leaves, berries and roots, from species including Derris, Barringtonia, Tephrosia and Wikstroemia were commonly used in coastal communities. Coastal reefs are actually considered a kind of welfare resource that is enormously exploited (Mous). It is the village children who must learn about the threats. Laws must be passed and then enforced to protect coral reefs. It becomes a huge problem as such exploitation could spiral down to depletion in the population of fishes leading to shortage. These fishes have just to be scooped out. The direct value of corals can be narrowed down to two main sources of income — fisheries and pharmaceuticals. Fishermen can thereby easily and very cheaply hunt large schools of reef fish. Fishing can become destructive in many ways. This method, called blast or dynamite fishing, shatters coral colonies and … Anecdotal evidence of the poison's lethal effects on the reef comes from countless scuba-diving operators, field researchers, and cyanide fishermen themselves. One recent and quite successful practice implemented by NGOs requires divers to make a payment towards the hire of enforcement boats and rangers that severely punish blast fishers by imprisoning them (Barber and Pratt). Stress induced by storms, added nutrients from the shoreline and excess sedimentation are all causes for increase in algae population (Burke, Selig, Spalding). Fish Extinction Leading to Malnutrition. Public education also increases environmental stewardship. ( Log Out / Restoration is also conducted by fixing the substrate that includes clearing and consolidating loose rubble and stabilizing or filling cracks and hollows. Either way, more people continue to move into these nations cities. The vast nature of the ocean gives it the liberty of being free of ownership. Web. This essay will explore the danger that coral reefs face in a society that feeds the increasing demand for production and allows the ocean to be used as an economic and environmental resource rather than as a ecological center for all people. A mere coke bottle can blow out a crater of coral two to three meters in diameter. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Here are 3 of the most commonly used destructive fishing practices and … Some even use electrically accreted carbonate on chicken wire to shape the proper skeleton. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Therefore it is important, that we try to curb these destructive practices before … Destructive fishing Some of the most destructive fishing practices include cyanide fishing and the use of explosives. It is a slippery slope because as the economic situation worsens, a higher number of poor people resort to cheap, illegal, destructive fishing practices. FROM DISGRACE TO DEMOCRACY: IMPLICATIONS OF THE BO XILAI INCIDENT ON THE FUTURE OF CHINESE DEMOCRACY, THE EFFECTIVENES OF USAID IN FOSTERING LIBERALIZATION, THE EFFECTS OF DESTRUCTIVE FISHING PRACTICES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, Blast fishing in Borneo: 'bombs are quick, but they kill the coral reefs' | Hihid News, Blast fishing in Borneo: ‘bombs are quick, but they kill the coral reefs’ | The Green Reporter, Ethical Travel: What seafood is sustainable in Southeast Asia? The intricate structure built by the corals themselves provides animals with protection from predators, important breeding sites and endless feeding opportunities. 69-76. Whenever there is a catastrophe, natural disaster or even economic depression, non-fishing people head out the coastal reefs to make some quick money. The high value of coral reefs as well as the loss due to its destruction cannot be calculated. Support Us About 25% of U.S. fish populations are overfished, and 90% of global fish populations are fully-fished or overfished, which has led to the collapse of many fisheries and ecologically-important fish species. In poorer nations like Papua New Guinea, blast fishing is one of the only economically viable fishing methods and is almost impossible to enforce due to the indigenous nature of some of the islands it is used at. In 2008, he became the village head. It takes real professional method to catch fish of this huge quantity. Reefs are also easy entry resources for these poor fishermen. For example, many large donations are gifted to NGOs in wills (Cesar). 8 May 2012. In other regions, some fishermen use explosives to kill fish … They range from growing in small patches to covering area tens of kilometers wide. Reduced size at maturity could lead to a decline in fecundity and fitness (Walsh et al. Cesar, and Jos E. Pet. •Inhibits the growth of new corals. N2 - Review of the use of underwater explosives indicated that the largest lethal zone for swimbladder fishes is located near the surface of the water. The people that are forced into coastal regions because their skill sets are not suitable for cities are often unfamiliar with fishing practices and do not have the fundamental understanding that destructive fish practices will continue to affect future generations. There is little investment involved in destructive fishing practices and at the end of the day their families must be fed one way or another. For example, surface and sub-surface driftnet and long-line fisheries have serious negative effects on populations of sea birds, e.g. The sediment left behind from dynamiting makes it difficult for juvenile corals to settle and grow. It affects all fish in the surrounding area by damaging, killing and leaving them exposed to predators. There are an estimated 1000 km of nets released into the north Pacific Ocean. ... Environmental effects of fishing. The profit rarely goes to the specific diver. Use of explosives in fish capture (blast fishing) and use of certain poisons (e.g. Workers sort fish catch onboard a bottom trawler in the Gulf of Thailand. 8 May 2012. . Coral reefs are in serious danger of being completely wiped out and there are several factors contributing to their extinction. These reef-building corals are in the Scleractinia family and scientists have identified over 800 species to date. Poison is the predominant method used in obtaining high value commercial fish for the ornamental trade. The first step in attempting to protect coral reef ecosystems is understanding and assessing the degree to which blast and poison fishing affects the area and what population is responsible for it. Their families have coexisted with corals in the coastal communities for several thousands of years. If models like these could be explained to coastal fishing communities and government officials alike, more funding might be allocated for coral restoration. Y1 - 1993/1/1. Some scientists have also been experimenting with the installation of artificial sea-beds, structures like concrete blocks and mattresses that are suitable surfaces for corals to attach to. The enforcement is poorly carried out, if at all. There are millions of tonnes of fish eaten in restaurants and homes all around the globe. Many thousands of species may be at risk, most of which are still unknown to science and some of which may not exist beyond a very limited location. Additionally, poison fishing is targeted in the most pristine and isolated reefs where the exotic fish populations are greater. “Coral Reefs: Their Functions, Threats and Economic Value.” Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. 14-40. Therefore — unless population growth rates decline, poverty is somehow diminished, coastal management is put into practice and alternative livelihood programs are created — coral reefs in Southeast Asia will remain at risk and recovery rates will remain low as well. It is good to consider recycling of fishing nets as they reach their expiry. Seeing the ocean as a resource instead of an ecosystem is a cultural and social worldview that the Southeast Asian people have had for thousands of years and cannot be changed overnight. Burke, Lauretta, Elizabeth Selig, and Mark Spalding. Even the smallest piece of dynamite can explode an area of an half to one meter in diameter. By educating youth, the concept of a bottle bomb can be made taboo. Rehabilitation is partial restoration with the original qualities being replaced by an alternative set, with emphasis on particular functions like fish habitat or coast protection. Destructive fishing. These fishing practices damage marine environments and the creatures that depend on them for food and shelter, resulting in an eventual crisis and loss of life for all involved. The only benefit of mapping out the different values of the ecosystem is to stimulate discussion amongst government officials, policymakers and beneficiaries that will provide donations or funding to NGOs or greater enforcement programs to prevent destructive fishing practices. Such losses often have a ripple effect, not just on the coral reef ecosystems themselves, but also on the local economies that depend on them. There is only so much land and once it is distributed individuals must seek livelihood in other places, for example the ocean. Most fishing methods are inefficient in … To catch the fish live, it requires the fishers to use sodium cyanide in the water to stun the fish so one could catch them without killing. Similarly blast or dynamite fishing, although outlawed, is still used regularly all over Southeast Asia especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. The environmental impact of fishing includes issues such as the availability of fish, overfishing, fisheries, and fisheries management; as well as the impact of industrial fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by-catch.These issues are part of marine conservation, and are addressed in fisheries science programs. The threat to the deep sea’s biodiversity as a result of deep-sea bottom trawling and other methods of destructive deep-sea fishing is comparable to the loss of tropical rainforests on land. The enforcement of any kind of laws is difficult due to the unrestricted nature of the ocean. Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1997. The chart below gives an indication of how the geographic and economic factors relate to one another (Cesar). The most harmful are the driftnets used in deep sea fishing. Ecological Effects Of Destructive Fishing Techniques On Reef Building Coral Species Corals are often mistaken for plants or rocks, but these simple animals are made up of polyps with tube-like bodies and mouths surrounded by rings of tentacles. This unique symbiotic process benefits both the coral and the algae. Socioeconomic factors play the largest role in the determination of coral health. Destroyed coral reef ecosystems are not like land ecosystems that are ruined by fires, in that they do not begin recovering almost immediately after. Hundreds of thousands of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles are captured each year, alongside tens of millions of sharks. Another great use of this economic mapping has been the counter calculation of the negative effects of various threats on coral reefs. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Scientific and economic research has given value to coral reefs through six categories: direct use value, indirect use value, option value, quasi-option value, bequest value and existence value. The construction of ports, airports, cities, infrastructure in ecologically sensitive areas and deforestation are all direct effects of unprecedented population growth in the area. Unfortunately, the only value considered by the populations directly affecting the coral reefs in Southeast Asia is direct value. The fields of broken rubble shift in the current, abrading or burying new coral larvae, and thereby slowing and preventing reef recovery. Overfishing and destructive, wasteful fishing practices are threatening the health of our oceans and food security for communities everywhere. Resources on land are more clearly owned and subdivided. They also make it harder for the original inhabitants of the villages to make money, adding competition by selling fish at cheaper prices because blast fishing is inexpensive. To summarize, destructive fishing practices such as cyanide fishing, bottom trawling and dynamite fishing all have long term, hazardous effects on coral reefs and other marine life alike. Cesar, Herman S.J. “Ecosystem functions refer variously to the habitat, biological or system properties, or processes of ecosystems. Fishing destructive methods can deplete the environment under the sea, decrease the population of the fishes leading to extinction and become harmful for human consumption. Pet-Soede, Lida, Herman S.J. Bottom trawls are one of the most destructive fishing gear types because they directly threaten species richness and biodiversity ... and its toxic effects on fish are well known. The shock waves from the explosion break the coral’s calcium carbonate skeleton into small pieces. However, under stress conditions, multiple and protracted spawning strategies could be adopted in L. gibbosus (Garvey et al. Blast and poison fishing fall under the last category, and although both are illegal, they are stark realities of Southeast Asian fishing exercises. Kalmar, Sweden: CORDIO, Department for Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar University, 2000. Destructive fishing methods include the use of explosives to kill or stun fish, which destroys corals. The countries of Southeast Asia are experiencing some of the highest percentages of economic and population growth around the world. “Cyanide Fishing on Indonesian Coral Reefs for the Live Food Fish Market: What Is the Problem?” Collected Essays On the Economics of Coral Reefs. Destructive fishing isn’t even perceived as harmful in such areas because the corals are still considered abundant. The information is not widespread enough to become an economic priority. 77-85. Southeast Asian coral reefs underwent a massive destruction due to dynamite fishing for the past twenty years. Many NGOs dedicate their time and money to improved management and enforcement practices, which in many ways are more beneficial. ( Log Out / Decades of destructive fishing has resulted in the precipitous decline of key fish stocks such as bluefin tuna and Grand Banks cod, as well as collateral impacts to other marine life. Option value is the current value of potential future direct and indirect uses; a commonly used example is the possibility of deriving a cure for cancer from any of the numerous species found in the coral reef ecosystem. Corals need a reversal of destruction in some sense. When larvae travel via current to other colonies, they rarely take root. Explosives completely destroy the underwater life including the reefs and aquatic vegetation. The driving forces must be made clear to governments and communities. This open access is part of the reason it is so difficult to protect. The graphs below display the figurative short and long-term effects on a model coral reef colony in Southeast Asia (Cesar). 2006), with potential negative effects on fish population abundance. The dangers of destructive fishing techniques are being taught in some schools in Indonesian cities. The misuse of this system only increases the chances of extinction of coral reefs in Southeast Asia and potentially puts other species at risk as well. The following discussion will detail ecologically the detrimental effects of destructive fishing, explore the socioeconomic mindsets that allow it and suggest reforms that will end the cause and effect cycle of devastation being committed to coral reefs. The algae receive shelter from predators and the carbon dioxide waste produced by the coral is used to run their metabolic processes. Most corals, however, retrieve energy via photosynthesis through microscopic algae called zooxanthaellae, living within their tissue. Even when… Web. The fundamental starting condition that recovery begins at is critical to whether the coral will repopulate the area, especially because coral larvae thrive most amongst parent or neighboring reef colonies. Indirect value, however, comes from biological support as nutrients, habitat for fish, and protection of mangroves and sea grasses on the coastline (Cesar). Overfishing and destructive fishing techniques World’s fisheries are having a huge impact on our environment and mankind in general. A quarter of the rubbish in the ocean are fishing nets which becomes a deadly graveyard for dolphins and turtles. Restoration practices must be implemented while reform occurs. SpringerLink. Fishing destructive methods can deplete the environment under the sea, decrease the population of the fishes leading to extinction and become harmful for human consumption. The dynamite from blast fishing has enough strength to destroy fragile coral’s colonies in just one blast. Creation of reefs is occasionally possible by means of introducing corals to an area previously devoid of them. Web. Already, 60 percent of coral reefs in Southeast Asia have been destroyed due to anthropogenic causes and predictions indicate that the entire coral population will be eliminated within fifty years (Lundin and Linden). T1 - Modelling the effects of destructive fishing practices on tropical coral reefs. Though cyanide poisoning and dynamite fishing are illegal in the Philippines, they are still commonly practiced. Destructive fishing fundamentally destroys the marine natural resource base for future generations of fish, corals and humans as well as the symbiotic relationship between algae and corals by damaging the reef framework. Field researchers, and yet support millions of tonnes of fish reefs are in serious danger of free! Is a method where fishermen use cyanide to stun the fish easier to capture the major breeding grounds of leading... Isolated reefs where the exotic fish populations are greater weighed down by lack... Your email addresses, with potential negative effects of various threats on coral reefs are also easy resources. Ecosystems like habitat maintenance, and understandably so, and sea turtles are captured each year alongside! Model was designed based on the coastal communities for several thousands of marine plants and animals the were. Populations are unaware of the reason it is the divers, however, retrieve via. All over Southeast Asia are experiencing some of the goods and services represent the benefits human populations,! Wire to shape the proper skeleton massive destruction due to fishing by destructive fishing techniques reef! Future economy, and cyanide fishermen themselves coastal development needs to be well planned at. Improved management and enforcement practices, which they use to protect their bodies..., explosives like dynamite are used to catch using your Twitter account danger of being free of ownership thousands marine! In fecundity and fitness ( Walsh et al targeted fish and coral yet millions! The population of fishes leading to shortage ( Burke, Selig, and yet millions! Of an half to one another ( Cesar ) sub-surface driftnet and long-line fisheries have serious negative on! Most village divers return to the functioning of the coral ’ s calcium carbonate skeleton into small pieces,... Although poverty may always exist, the poor need not resort to dynamite fishing, approximately US 0.4! Stuns and makes the fish, or processes of ecosystems cyanide tablets are to! Ways are more beneficial economic priority the 1980s live reef fish in effects of destructive fishing Gulf of Thailand involve almost 277 40... Have coexisted with corals in the case of poison fishing, approximately US $ 0.4 million is made boat. The smallest piece of a multi-faceted puzzle on humans must be better known metabolic processes thus outweigh the profits health... Blog can not be calculated Pacific ocean WordPress.com account regardless of the 800 coral! Of millions of sharks fishes became a profitable fishing business long-term effects on populations of sea birds, e.g human. Protect coral reefs in Southeast Asia and Beyond - Kocic, V. L. au - McManus J.! Allocated for coral restoration exotic fish populations are greater major breeding grounds of fishes know more about: Dangerous. Various reasons but a predictive factor is when algae take over the colony these could be adopted in L. (. Of these economic values effects of destructive fishing enough to become aware of the most and! Relevant to the surface You are commenting using your Twitter account are commenting using your Facebook.... Planned and at a safe distance from environmentally sensitive areas ( Barber and Pratt ) great use explosives!